Learn chess pin
In chess, a pin is a tactical maneuver that involves attacking a valuable piece (such as a queen, rook, or bishop) in such a way that it cannot move without exposing a more valuable piece behind it to capture. The pinned piece is essentially immobilized because moving it would put the more valuable piece (usually the king) in check or expose it to capture by the opponent's piece.
There are two types of pins in chess: absolute pins and relative pins.
1. Absolute Pin:
An absolute pin occurs when a piece is pinned to its king. In other words, if the pinned piece were to move, the king would be left in check. The only way to break an absolute pin is to move the pinned piece (if allowed) or move the king out of check.
In this position, the black rook on e4 is pinned to the black king on h1 by the white queen on c3. The black rook cannot move because it would leave the black king in check.
2. Relative Pin:
A relative pin occurs when a piece is pinned to the king of the same color. In this case, if the pinned piece were to move, it would expose the king to a potential threat, but not necessarily a check.
In this position, the black queen on e4 is attacking the white rook on d4. The white rook is pinned to the white king on h1 because if the rook were to move, the white king would be exposed to the black queen's attack.
Keep in mind that when you're in a pinned position, it's generally not a good idea to move the pinned piece, as it can lead to a loss of material or even checkmate. However, in some cases, breaking the pin might be necessary to avoid a more severe threat or to free up a more critical piece.
Pins are important tactical elements to be aware of during a game of chess. Recognizing and utilizing pins effectively can lead to gaining a strategic advantage over your opponent. Similarly, being cautious of falling into a pin can help you avoid unnecessary losses.